Araştırma Makalesi
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Ethnicity and Identities in Iran: Progress and Equality

Yıl 2022, Cilt 8, Sayı 2, 238 - 272, 25.08.2022
https://doi.org/10.21600/ijoks.1148638

Öz

With worldwide progress, development and diversification come tensions between individual, local, national, and global identities, and the fight for equality and justice and opposition to discrimination. Iran is no different, but little has been written about the historical, current, and future identities of Iran’s ethnic groups. This study looks at the Azeris, Kurds, Arabs, and Baloch alongside the Persian ethnic identity, which is predominant in modern Iran and which many claim is upheld politically and socially as the ideal for a future, collective Iranian ethnic identity, promoting discrimination against different ethnic identities. This theory is grounded by conducting and analysing in-depth questionnaires across 13 Iranian provinces in relation to religious, local, and national identities; inter-ethnic cultural borders; hindrances to progressive movements; the purging of certain ethnic cultures; and possible steps to resolve crises. Some data has been extracted from the author’s recently published book, From Border to Border: Comprehensive research study on identity and ethnicity in Iran. This data presents practical steps to achieving stable, equitable and sustainable cultural, social, economic, legal, and political conditions in Iran, based on the results of questionnaires. Taken into consideration is the realization of economic, socio-cultural, and political justice and indiscriminate social welfare, promoting interethnic solidarity and justice in the media, separating the legal and political systems from religious and ethno-centric thought in acknowledgement of the diversity of religious identities in Iran, and implementing the pending articles of the Constitution.

Kaynakça

  • Abazari (2014). The weakening of the social system and the disintegration of social cohesion. Baran Publishing.
  • Abdollahi, M. and Hosseinbor, M. O. (2002). Baloch students’ tendency toward national identity in Iran. Iranian Journal of Sociology, 4(4), 101–126.
  • Ahmadi, H. (2018). Ethnicity and Ethnocentrism in Iran: From a Myth to Reality. Ney.
  • Kameel Ahmady. et al. (2019) From Border to Border: Comprehensive research study on identity and ethnicity in Iran. London and Denmark: Mehri Publishing (2019) and Avaye Buf Publishing (2021)
  • Akhtari and Zolfaghari (2017). Equality and equality. Avai Asaman.
  • Alamdari, K. (2004). Why has Iran Fallen Behind and the West Progressed? Tenth printing. Towse'e.
  • Amirahmadi, H. (1998). Ethnicity and Security (H. Shafi'I, Trans.). Strategic Studies Quarterly, 2.
  • Ashraf, A. (1999). Iranian Identity among Iranians Abroad (Volume II of Tradition and Modernity). Cultural Bulletin of the Deputy of Financial Affairs of the Ministry of Culture and Islamic Guidance, Tehran.
  • Ashcroft, B., Griffiths, G. and Tiffin, H. (1998). Key Concepts in Post-Colonial Studies. Routledge.
  • Azkia, M. (2000). Sociology of Development. 2nd Printing. Hekmat.
  • Azkia, M. and Ghaffari, G. (2010). Contemporary Social Theories with a Developmental Approach. Elmi.
  • Babayiğit, M. V., & Dilbaz, İ. (2015). Kürt Dilbilimine Kısa Bir Bakış. International Journal of Kurdish Studies, (1), 125-139.
  • Babayiğit, M. V. (2020). Native Kurdish Teenage Learners’xx Language Shift from English to Kurdish in Learning the Target Language A Case of High School Students with Samples. 10th ECLSS Conferences on Language and Social Sciences, 118-122, 20-21 November, Almaty / Kazakhstan.
  • Babayiğit, M. V. (2021). Semantic and Modal Analysis of Some Verbs in Kurdish, Turkish and English. International Journal of Kurdish Studies, 7(1), 123-139.
  • Babayiğit, M. V., & Tanrıkulu, V. (2021). Berhevdana Hevoksazîyen Demên Xwerû Di Îngîlîzî, Kurdî û Tirkî. International Journal of Kurdish Studies, 7(2), 287-307.
  • Barrington, L. W. (2006). After Independence: Making and Protecting the Nations in Postcolonial and Postcommunist States. The University of Michigan Press.
  • Bauman, Z. (2001). Modernity and Modernism (H. Nozari, Trans.). Naghshe Jahan.
  • Bigdelo, R. (2001). Archaism in Contemporary History. Markaz.
  • Brown, R. (1996). Social Identity. In A. Kuper and J. Kuper (Eds.), The Social Science Encyclopedia. Rouledge.
  • Brown, G. K. & Langer. A. (2010). Conceptualizing and Measuring Ethnicity. Oxford Development Studies, 38(4).
  • Bruinessen, M. V. (1991). Agha, Shaikh and State: The Social and Political Structures of Kurdistan.
  • Castells, M. (2010). The Information Age: Economy, Society and Culture (A. Aligholiyan and A. Khakbaz, Trans.). Tarhe No.
  • Diakonoff, M. (2004). The Ancient History of Iran (R. Arbab, Trans.). Elmi Va Farhandi.
  • Entman, R. and Rojecki, A. (2000). The Black Image in the White Mind: Media and Race in America. Chicago University Press.
  • Faulks. K. (2000). Citizenship. Routedge.
  • Fuller, G. (1993). The Center of the Universe (A. Mokhber, Trans.). Markaz.
  • Ghaffari, G. and Niazi, M. (2007). Sociology of Participation. Nazdik.
  • Ghavam, A. (2000). Challenges in Political Development. Qumis.
  • Giddens, A. (2006). Sociology (M. Saburi, Trans.). Ney.
  • Graves, S. (1999). Television and Prejudice Reduction: When Does Television as a Vicarious Experience Make a Difference? In Journal of Social Issues, 55(4), 707–725.
  • Grossberg, L. (1996). Identity and Cultural Studies – Is That All There Is? In S. Hall and P. Du Gay, Eds.). Questions of Cultural Identity, 87–107. Sage.
  • Habermas, J. (2001). Modernity: An Incomplete Project (H. Nozarim, Trans.). 2nd Printing. Naghshe Jahan.
  • Hall, S. 1997. The local and the global: Globalization and ethnicity. Cultural Politics, 11, 173–187.
  • Hechter, M. (1975). Internal Colonialism: The Celtic Fringe in British National Development, 1536–1966. Routledge & Kegan Paul.
  • Hemmati, M. (2007). Socioeconomic rights and their relationship with citizenship rights as inspired by Rawls’ Theory of Justice. Judiciary Law Journal, 58, 65֪–92.
  • Jenkins, R. (2014). Rethinking Ethnicity. Sage.
  • Kachooyan, H. (2008). Evolutions of Identity Discourses in Iran. Ney.
  • Karacan, H., & Babayiğit, M. V. (2017). Türk ve Kürt Dillerinin Sentaks (Sözdizimsel) Karşılaştırması. Tiydem Yayıncılık, Editör: Hasan KARACAN, Basım sayısı, 3, 7-31.
  • Karacan, H. & Kaya, B. (2015). Zazaki ile Kurmanci lehçelerinin fonetik yönünden karşılaştırılması. International Journal of Kurdish Studies 1 (2),pp.102 – 115. https://doi.org/10.21600/ijoks.106020
  • Karimi Maleh, A. (2009). Futurology of Collective Identities in Tehran. Institute for National Studies.
  • Kaufmann, E. (2015). Land, History or Modernization? Explaining Ethnic Fractionalization. Ethnic and Racial Studies, 38(2), 193–210.
  • Mahrooyan, H. (2006). Modernity and Identity Crisis. 2nd Printing. Akhtaran.
  • Motahhari, M. (2004). Selection of Notes. Sadra.
  • Motyl, A. J. (2000) Encyclopedia of Nationalism (Two-Volume Set).
  • Mozafari, A. (2012). Ethnicity and social security: A case study of the Baloch residing in Sistan and Baluchistan Province. National Congress on Border Cities and Security; Challenges and Strategies.
  • Oldfield. A. (1990). Citizenship and Community: Civic Rebublicanism and The Modern World. Routledge.
  • Olson, E. T. (2002). Personal Identity. In E. Zalra (Ed.), The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy.
  • Poursaeed, R. and Zahiri, M. (2012). Rawlsian Social Justice. Ettela'ate Hekmat Va Ma'refat, 7(8), 60–63.
  • Sanie Ejlal, M. (2005). An Introduction to Iranian Culture and Identity. Tamaddone Irani.
  • Sen, A. (1983). Development: Which Way Now? The Economic Journal, 93(372).
  • Sen, A. (2003). Development as Freedom (V. Mahmoudi, Trans.). University of Tehran Faculty of Management.
  • Shayegan, D. (2005). Modern Fascination: Multifold Identity and Mobile Thought (F. Valiyani, Trans.). 4th Printing. Farzan Ruz.
  • Sidamami, K. (2000). Roundtable on the historical evolution of national identity in Iran from Islam to today, Quarterly Journal of National Studies.
  • Tameh, M. (2017). Sobh Be Kheyr Iran program on Channel 1 of Islamic Republic of Iran Broadcasting, 12 March 2018.
  • Todaro, M. (1987). Economic Development in the Third World (G. Farjadi, Trans.). 1st Printing. Ministry of Planning and Budget.
  • Vali, A. (2018). Speech at the Birthplace of Kurdish Nationalism. Cheshmeh.
  • Yusofi, A. (2001). Interethnic relations and their effects on the identities of the ethnic groups in Iran. Journal of National Studies, 2(8), 11–42.

Ethnicity and Identities in Iran: Progress and Equality

Yıl 2022, Cilt 8, Sayı 2, 238 - 272, 25.08.2022
https://doi.org/10.21600/ijoks.1148638

Öz

With worldwide progress, development and diversification come tensions between individual, local, national, and global identities, and the fight for equality and justice and opposition to discrimination. Iran is no different, but little has been written about the historical, current, and future identities of Iran’s ethnic groups. This study looks at the Azeris, Kurds, Arabs, and Baloch alongside the Persian ethnic identity, which is predominant in modern Iran and which many claim is upheld politically and socially as the ideal for a future, collective Iranian ethnic identity, promoting discrimination against different ethnic identities. This theory is grounded by conducting and analysing in-depth questionnaires across 13 Iranian provinces in relation to religious, local, and national identities; inter-ethnic cultural borders; hindrances to progressive movements; the purging of certain ethnic cultures; and possible steps to resolve crises. Some data has been extracted from the author’s recently published book, From Border to Border: Comprehensive research study on identity and ethnicity in Iran. This data presents practical steps to achieving stable, equitable and sustainable cultural, social, economic, legal, and political conditions in Iran, based on the results of questionnaires. Taken into consideration is the realization of economic, socio-cultural, and political justice and indiscriminate social welfare, promoting interethnic solidarity and justice in the media, separating the legal and political systems from religious and ethno-centric thought in acknowledgement of the diversity of religious identities in Iran, and implementing the pending articles of the Constitution.

Kaynakça

  • Abazari (2014). The weakening of the social system and the disintegration of social cohesion. Baran Publishing.
  • Abdollahi, M. and Hosseinbor, M. O. (2002). Baloch students’ tendency toward national identity in Iran. Iranian Journal of Sociology, 4(4), 101–126.
  • Ahmadi, H. (2018). Ethnicity and Ethnocentrism in Iran: From a Myth to Reality. Ney.
  • Kameel Ahmady. et al. (2019) From Border to Border: Comprehensive research study on identity and ethnicity in Iran. London and Denmark: Mehri Publishing (2019) and Avaye Buf Publishing (2021)
  • Akhtari and Zolfaghari (2017). Equality and equality. Avai Asaman.
  • Alamdari, K. (2004). Why has Iran Fallen Behind and the West Progressed? Tenth printing. Towse'e.
  • Amirahmadi, H. (1998). Ethnicity and Security (H. Shafi'I, Trans.). Strategic Studies Quarterly, 2.
  • Ashraf, A. (1999). Iranian Identity among Iranians Abroad (Volume II of Tradition and Modernity). Cultural Bulletin of the Deputy of Financial Affairs of the Ministry of Culture and Islamic Guidance, Tehran.
  • Ashcroft, B., Griffiths, G. and Tiffin, H. (1998). Key Concepts in Post-Colonial Studies. Routledge.
  • Azkia, M. (2000). Sociology of Development. 2nd Printing. Hekmat.
  • Azkia, M. and Ghaffari, G. (2010). Contemporary Social Theories with a Developmental Approach. Elmi.
  • Babayiğit, M. V., & Dilbaz, İ. (2015). Kürt Dilbilimine Kısa Bir Bakış. International Journal of Kurdish Studies, (1), 125-139.
  • Babayiğit, M. V. (2020). Native Kurdish Teenage Learners’xx Language Shift from English to Kurdish in Learning the Target Language A Case of High School Students with Samples. 10th ECLSS Conferences on Language and Social Sciences, 118-122, 20-21 November, Almaty / Kazakhstan.
  • Babayiğit, M. V. (2021). Semantic and Modal Analysis of Some Verbs in Kurdish, Turkish and English. International Journal of Kurdish Studies, 7(1), 123-139.
  • Babayiğit, M. V., & Tanrıkulu, V. (2021). Berhevdana Hevoksazîyen Demên Xwerû Di Îngîlîzî, Kurdî û Tirkî. International Journal of Kurdish Studies, 7(2), 287-307.
  • Barrington, L. W. (2006). After Independence: Making and Protecting the Nations in Postcolonial and Postcommunist States. The University of Michigan Press.
  • Bauman, Z. (2001). Modernity and Modernism (H. Nozari, Trans.). Naghshe Jahan.
  • Bigdelo, R. (2001). Archaism in Contemporary History. Markaz.
  • Brown, R. (1996). Social Identity. In A. Kuper and J. Kuper (Eds.), The Social Science Encyclopedia. Rouledge.
  • Brown, G. K. & Langer. A. (2010). Conceptualizing and Measuring Ethnicity. Oxford Development Studies, 38(4).
  • Bruinessen, M. V. (1991). Agha, Shaikh and State: The Social and Political Structures of Kurdistan.
  • Castells, M. (2010). The Information Age: Economy, Society and Culture (A. Aligholiyan and A. Khakbaz, Trans.). Tarhe No.
  • Diakonoff, M. (2004). The Ancient History of Iran (R. Arbab, Trans.). Elmi Va Farhandi.
  • Entman, R. and Rojecki, A. (2000). The Black Image in the White Mind: Media and Race in America. Chicago University Press.
  • Faulks. K. (2000). Citizenship. Routedge.
  • Fuller, G. (1993). The Center of the Universe (A. Mokhber, Trans.). Markaz.
  • Ghaffari, G. and Niazi, M. (2007). Sociology of Participation. Nazdik.
  • Ghavam, A. (2000). Challenges in Political Development. Qumis.
  • Giddens, A. (2006). Sociology (M. Saburi, Trans.). Ney.
  • Graves, S. (1999). Television and Prejudice Reduction: When Does Television as a Vicarious Experience Make a Difference? In Journal of Social Issues, 55(4), 707–725.
  • Grossberg, L. (1996). Identity and Cultural Studies – Is That All There Is? In S. Hall and P. Du Gay, Eds.). Questions of Cultural Identity, 87–107. Sage.
  • Habermas, J. (2001). Modernity: An Incomplete Project (H. Nozarim, Trans.). 2nd Printing. Naghshe Jahan.
  • Hall, S. 1997. The local and the global: Globalization and ethnicity. Cultural Politics, 11, 173–187.
  • Hechter, M. (1975). Internal Colonialism: The Celtic Fringe in British National Development, 1536–1966. Routledge & Kegan Paul.
  • Hemmati, M. (2007). Socioeconomic rights and their relationship with citizenship rights as inspired by Rawls’ Theory of Justice. Judiciary Law Journal, 58, 65֪–92.
  • Jenkins, R. (2014). Rethinking Ethnicity. Sage.
  • Kachooyan, H. (2008). Evolutions of Identity Discourses in Iran. Ney.
  • Karacan, H., & Babayiğit, M. V. (2017). Türk ve Kürt Dillerinin Sentaks (Sözdizimsel) Karşılaştırması. Tiydem Yayıncılık, Editör: Hasan KARACAN, Basım sayısı, 3, 7-31.
  • Karacan, H. & Kaya, B. (2015). Zazaki ile Kurmanci lehçelerinin fonetik yönünden karşılaştırılması. International Journal of Kurdish Studies 1 (2),pp.102 – 115. https://doi.org/10.21600/ijoks.106020
  • Karimi Maleh, A. (2009). Futurology of Collective Identities in Tehran. Institute for National Studies.
  • Kaufmann, E. (2015). Land, History or Modernization? Explaining Ethnic Fractionalization. Ethnic and Racial Studies, 38(2), 193–210.
  • Mahrooyan, H. (2006). Modernity and Identity Crisis. 2nd Printing. Akhtaran.
  • Motahhari, M. (2004). Selection of Notes. Sadra.
  • Motyl, A. J. (2000) Encyclopedia of Nationalism (Two-Volume Set).
  • Mozafari, A. (2012). Ethnicity and social security: A case study of the Baloch residing in Sistan and Baluchistan Province. National Congress on Border Cities and Security; Challenges and Strategies.
  • Oldfield. A. (1990). Citizenship and Community: Civic Rebublicanism and The Modern World. Routledge.
  • Olson, E. T. (2002). Personal Identity. In E. Zalra (Ed.), The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy.
  • Poursaeed, R. and Zahiri, M. (2012). Rawlsian Social Justice. Ettela'ate Hekmat Va Ma'refat, 7(8), 60–63.
  • Sanie Ejlal, M. (2005). An Introduction to Iranian Culture and Identity. Tamaddone Irani.
  • Sen, A. (1983). Development: Which Way Now? The Economic Journal, 93(372).
  • Sen, A. (2003). Development as Freedom (V. Mahmoudi, Trans.). University of Tehran Faculty of Management.
  • Shayegan, D. (2005). Modern Fascination: Multifold Identity and Mobile Thought (F. Valiyani, Trans.). 4th Printing. Farzan Ruz.
  • Sidamami, K. (2000). Roundtable on the historical evolution of national identity in Iran from Islam to today, Quarterly Journal of National Studies.
  • Tameh, M. (2017). Sobh Be Kheyr Iran program on Channel 1 of Islamic Republic of Iran Broadcasting, 12 March 2018.
  • Todaro, M. (1987). Economic Development in the Third World (G. Farjadi, Trans.). 1st Printing. Ministry of Planning and Budget.
  • Vali, A. (2018). Speech at the Birthplace of Kurdish Nationalism. Cheshmeh.
  • Yusofi, A. (2001). Interethnic relations and their effects on the identities of the ethnic groups in Iran. Journal of National Studies, 2(8), 11–42.

Ayrıntılar

Birincil Dil İngilizce
Konular Sosyal
Bölüm Makaleler
Yazarlar

Kameel AHMADY> (Sorumlu Yazar)
Bir kuruma bağlı değildir
0000-0001-5467-966X
United Kingdom

Destekleyen Kurum University of Kent
Yayımlanma Tarihi 25 Ağustos 2022
Gönderilme Tarihi 25 Temmuz 2022
Kabul Tarihi 6 Ağustos 2022
Yayınlandığı Sayı Yıl 2022, Cilt 8, Sayı 2

Kaynak Göster

Bibtex @araştırma makalesi { ijoks1148638, journal = {International Journal of Kurdish Studies}, issn = {2149-2751}, eissn = {2149-2751}, address = {}, publisher = {Hasan KARACAN}, year = {2022}, volume = {8}, number = {2}, pages = {238 - 272}, doi = {10.21600/ijoks.1148638}, title = {Ethnicity and Identities in Iran: Progress and Equality}, key = {cite}, author = {Ahmady, Kameel} }
APA Ahmady, K. (2022). Ethnicity and Identities in Iran: Progress and Equality . International Journal of Kurdish Studies , 8 (2) , 238-272 . DOI: 10.21600/ijoks.1148638
MLA Ahmady, K. "Ethnicity and Identities in Iran: Progress and Equality" . International Journal of Kurdish Studies 8 (2022 ): 238-272 <http://www.ijoks.com/tr/pub/issue/72162/1148638>
Chicago Ahmady, K. "Ethnicity and Identities in Iran: Progress and Equality". International Journal of Kurdish Studies 8 (2022 ): 238-272
RIS TY - JOUR T1 - Ethnicity and Identities in Iran: Progress and Equality AU - KameelAhmady Y1 - 2022 PY - 2022 N1 - doi: 10.21600/ijoks.1148638 DO - 10.21600/ijoks.1148638 T2 - International Journal of Kurdish Studies JF - Journal JO - JOR SP - 238 EP - 272 VL - 8 IS - 2 SN - 2149-2751-2149-2751 M3 - doi: 10.21600/ijoks.1148638 UR - https://doi.org/10.21600/ijoks.1148638 Y2 - 2022 ER -
EndNote %0 International Journal of Kurdish Studies Ethnicity and Identities in Iran: Progress and Equality %A Kameel Ahmady %T Ethnicity and Identities in Iran: Progress and Equality %D 2022 %J International Journal of Kurdish Studies %P 2149-2751-2149-2751 %V 8 %N 2 %R doi: 10.21600/ijoks.1148638 %U 10.21600/ijoks.1148638
ISNAD Ahmady, Kameel . "Ethnicity and Identities in Iran: Progress and Equality". International Journal of Kurdish Studies 8 / 2 (Ağustos 2022): 238-272 . https://doi.org/10.21600/ijoks.1148638
AMA Ahmady K. Ethnicity and Identities in Iran: Progress and Equality. Kurdish Studies. 2022; 8(2): 238-272.
Vancouver Ahmady K. Ethnicity and Identities in Iran: Progress and Equality. International Journal of Kurdish Studies. 2022; 8(2): 238-272.
IEEE K. Ahmady , "Ethnicity and Identities in Iran: Progress and Equality", International Journal of Kurdish Studies, c. 8, sayı. 2, ss. 238-272, Ağu. 2022, doi:10.21600/ijoks.1148638


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