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A Peace-Oriented Investigation of the Ethnic Identity Challenge in Iran (A Study of Five Iranian Ethnic Groups with the GT Method)

Year 2022, Volume 8, Issue 1, 1 - 40, 25.01.2022
https://doi.org/10.21600/ijoks.1039049

Abstract

In the contemporary era, Iran has undergone a continuous experience of identity/ethnic multiplicity, which has caused serious interethnic conflicts revolving around discrimination and inequality in the urge for identity and justice and with a peace-oriented trace as the process of globalization has developed.

In this research, the influence on Iranian civilization in terms of land, language, and religion have been investigated in five ethnic groups, including Persian, Azeri, Kurd, Arab, and Baloch, given different aspects of Islamic and Western governments. The consideration of the Persian ethnic identity as the exclusive component of Iranian national identity has reduced ancient Iranian identity and brought about claims for identity in other ethnic groups.

The present article is an extract from author’s recently published book2 which has adopted a hybrid qualitative approach (GT), in-depth interview surveys and tools, library documentation, and an open questionnaire in thirteen provinces to extract and classify data in the following areas: religious identity and national identity (interaction or opposition), interethnic cultural borders, ethnic and national movement dead-end, elimination of cultures, and a peace-oriented approach to resolving the crisis. Thus, a conceptual model has been obtained, shaping basic factors (economic and ideological), intervening factors (media and lifestyle), grounded factors (legal and cultural parameters and resource mismanagement), and phenomenal orientation (claim for justice and socio-political gap) and presenting strategic action (peaceful action, acceptance of the present conditions, and state-nation interaction) and its outcomes (stability and decline of social capital).

References

  • Abdollahi, Mohammad and Hosseinbor, Mohammad Osman. (2002). Baloch students’ tendency toward national identity in Iran. Iranian Journal of Sociology, 4 (4), p. 101-126.
  • Ahmadi, Hamid. (2018). Ethnicity and Ethnocentrism in Iran: From a Myth to Reality. Tehran: Ney.
  • Ahmady, Kameel. From border to Border (A comprehensive reach on Identity and Ethnicity in Iran), 2021, Mehri Publishing, London, UK
  • Alamdari, Kazem. (2004). Why has Iran Fallen Behind and the West Progressed? Tenth Printing, Tehran: Towse’e.
  • Amirahmadi, Hooshang. (1998). Ethnicity and Security (Translated by Hasan Shafi'i). Strategic Studies Quarterly, 1 (2), p. 207-234.
  • Ashraf, Ahmad. (1999). Iranian Identity among Iranians Abroad (Volume II of Tradition and Modernity). Cultural Bulletin of the Deputy of Financial Affairs of the Ministry of Culture and Islamic Guidance, Tehran.
  • Ashcreft, B.; Griffths, G. & Tiffin H. (1998). Key Concepts in post-colonial studies. London: Routledge.
  • Atabaki, Touraj. (2002). Azerbaijan and Iranian nationalism. Goftogu: Quarterly on Culture and Society, 33, p. 17-36.
  • Baratalipour, Mahdi. (2015). Perpetual peace and global political justice. World Politics: A Quarterly Journal,
  • Barrington, Lowell W. (2006). After Independence Making and Protecting the Nations in Postcolonial and Postcommunist States. The University of Michigan Press.
  • Barth, F. (1969). Introduction Ethnic Groups and Boundaries. (In F. Barth ed.). Bergen: Universitetsforlage.
  • Bigdeli, Ali. (2006). Militarist thoughts in the Pahlavi I Era (Part one). Available at www.farsnews.com/news/8512070023 (Last retrieved 25 February 2019).
  • Bigdelo, Reza. (2001). Archaism in Contemporary History. Tehran: Markaz.
  • Borujerdi, Mehrdad. (2000). Iranian culture and identity beyond the borders. Journal of National Studies, 2 (5), p. 317-330.
  • Brown, Graham K. & Arnim, Langer. (2010), Conceptualizing and Measuring Ethnicity. Oxford Development Studies, 38 (4).
  • Brown, R. (1996). Social Identity )In A. Kuper and J. Kuper(. The Social Science Encyclopedia, New York: Rouledge.
  • Buurih, j. (1997) Culture Identity and immigration. Ethnic and Racial Studies, 21, p. 574-601.
  • Cashmore, Ellis. (1996). Dictionary of Race and Ethnic Relations. Fourth edition, London: Routledge Fenton, S. (2004). Beyond Ethnicity: The Coughlan, Reed (1985), Ethnicity and the State: Five Perspective. Choice.
  • Castells, Manuel. (2010). The Information Age: Economy, Society and Culture (Translated by Ahad Aligholiyan and Afshin Khakbaz). Tehran: Tarhe No.
  • Diakonoff, Mikhail. (2004). History of Ancient Iran (Translated by Ruhi Arbab). Tehran: Scientific and Cultural.
  • Entman, R. & Rojecki, A. (2000). The Black Image in the White Mind: Media and Race in America. Chicago: Chicago University Press.
  • Eriksen, Thomas H. (1993). Ethincity and nationalisim. London: Pluto press.
  • Faulks. K. (2000). Citizenship. New York: Routedg
  • Fuller, Graham. (1993). The Center of the Universe (Translated by Abbas Mokhber). Tehran: Markaz.
  • Ghasemi, Aliasghar; Khorshidi, Majid and Heidari, Hossein. (2011). Harmony between national and ethnic identity in Iran and Iranian ethnic groups’ approach toward national unity and the right to their destiny. Quarterly of Social Sciences, 18 (55), p. 57-92.
  • Giddens, Anthony. (2006). Sociology (Translated by Manuchehr Saburi). Tehran: Ney.
  • - (2019). Modernity and Self-identity (Translated by Naser Movaffaghiyan). Tehran: Ney.
  • Global Comparative Analysis of Ethnic Conflict. International Journal of Comparative Sociology, 45 (3-4), p. 179-194.
  • Graves, S. (1999). Television and Prejudice Reduction: When Does Television as a Vicarious Experience Make a Difference?. In Journal of Social Issues, 55 (4), p. 707-725.
  • Hall, S. & Gieben, B. (1990). Formation of Modernity. Cambridge: polity press
  • Hassanpour A. (1992), Nationalism and Language in Kurdistan, Mellen Research University Press.
  • Hechter, M. (1975). Internal Colonialism: The Celtic Fringe in British Nional Development, 1536-1966. London and Henley: Routledge & Kegan Paul.
  • Haghpanah, Jafar. (2003). Formulation procedure of ethnic policies in the Islamic Republic of Iran. Strategic Studies Quarterly, 6 (91), p. 462-542.
  • Jenkins, R. (2014). Rethinking Ethnicity. London: Sage.
  • Kaufmann, Eric. (2015). Land, History or Modernization? Explaining Ethnic Fractionalization. Ethnic and Racial Studies, 38, (2), pp. 193-210.
  • Lson, Eric T. (2002). Personal Identity. In The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy (Edward N. Zalta ed.)
  • Kachooyan, Hossein. (2008). Evolutions of Identity Discourses in Iran. Tehran: Ney.
  • Karacan, H. (2020). Kurmanji and Zazaki Dialects: Comparative Study on their Phonetics. International Journal of Kurdish Studies 6 (1), 35 – 51, DOI: https://doi.org/10.21600/ijoks.653812
  • Karacan, H. & Kaya, B. (2015). Zazaki ile Kurmanci lehçelerinin fonetik yönünden karşılaştırılması. International Journal of Kurdish Studies 1 (2), pp.102 – 115. DOI: https://doi.org/10.21600/ijoks.106020
  • Kasravi, Ahmad. (1978), Eighteen-Year History of Azerbaijan. Tehran: Amirkabir.
  • Khamei, Anvar. (2002). Pan-Turkism and its scientific and historical value. Socioeconomic Information, 17 (81 and 82), p. 40.
  • Kurung, Shen. (2002). Democratization of international relations. Gozareshe Goftogu. 1 (2), p. 36-44.
  • Malesevic, S. (2004). Sociology of Ethnicity. London: Sage Publication Ltd.
  • Malesevic, Sinisa. (2011). The Sociology of Ethnicity (Translated by Parviz Dalirpur). Tehran: Ameh.
  • Milton, M. Gordon. (1964). Assimilation in American Life. New York: Oxford University Press. Brown, Graham K. & Arnim, Langer. (2010), Conceptualizing and Measuring Ethnicity. Oxford Development Studies, 38 (4).
  • Mirmohamadi, Masumeh Sadat. (2011). A comparison of perpetual peace in Kant’s human- oriented thought and just peace in Shia thinkers’ thought. Ma'rifat-e Adyan, 2 (4), p. 117-146.
  • Motyl, Alexander. (2004). Middle East: Encyclopedia of Nationalism (Translated by Kamran Fani and Mahbube Mohajer). Tehran: Library of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs.
  • Mozafari, Arezu. (2012). Ethnicity and social security: A case study of the Baloch residing in Sistan and Baluchistan Province. National Congress on Border Cities and Security; Challenges and Strategies.
  • Muir, Richard. (1997). Political Geography – A New Introduction. Hong Kong: Mac Millan Press Ltd.
  • Nagel, Joanne & Olzak, S. (1982). Ethnic Mobilization in New and Old States: An Extension of Competition Model, Social Problems, 30 (2), pp. 127-143.
  • Oldfield. A. (1990). Citizenship and Community: Civic Rebublicanism and The Modern World. London: Routledge.
  • Olson, Eric T. (2002). Personal Identity, In the Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy (Edward N. Zalta ed.).
  • Olzak, Susan. (1985). Ethnicity and Theories of Ethnic Collective Bahavioue. Research in Social Movements. Conflicts and Change, 8, pp. 65 85.
  • Popper, K. (1962). The Open Society and its Enemies. London. Schwarzmantel, John. (2003). Citizenship and Identity: Towards a new republic. Routledge.
  • Rashidi, Hasan. (2008). Investigation of the Relationship between Social Factors and Collective Identity (Ethnic, National, and Global) among Students at Islamic Azad University of Mahabad (Master’s Thesis). Islamic Azad University of Tabriz.
  • Ramezanzadeh, Abdollah. (1998). Ethnic crisis trend in Iran. Strategic Studies Quarterly, 1, p. 217-28.
  • - (1997). Development and ethnic challenges, development and public security. Tehran: Conference on Public Development and Security.
  • Qayyim, Abd al-Nabi. (2001). A sociological study of the life and culture of the Arab in Khuzestan. Journal of National Studies, 2 (7), p. 15-26.
  • Sanie Ejlal, Maryam. (2005). An Introduction to Iranian Culture and Identity. Tehran: Institute for National Studies.
  • Shayegan, Dariush. (2002). Mental Idols and Primordial Memory. Tehran: Amirkabir.
  • - (2005). Modern Fascination: Multifold Identity and Mobile Thought (Translated by Fateme Valiyani). Fourth Printing, Tehran: Farzan Ruz.
  • Solomos, John. (1986). Varieties of Marxist Conceptions of Race, Class and the State: A Critical Analysis. In Theories of race and ethnic relations, edited by John Rex and David Mason. Cambridge: At the University Press.
  • Tavassoli, Gholam-Abbas. (2019). Sociological Theories. Tehran: Samt.
  • Turner, Jonathan, H. (1998). The Structure of sociological theory. Sixth edition, Belmont: Hadsworth publication.
  • Vali, Abbas et al., (2018). Speech at the Birthplace of Kurd Nationalism. Tehran: Cheshmeh.
  • Weber, M. (1968). Economy and Society. Berkeley: University of California Press.
  • Yusofi, Ali. (2001). Interethnic relations and their effects on the identities of the ethnic groups in Iran. Journal of National Studies, 2(8), p. 11-42.
  • Zokaei, Mohammad Saeid. (2002). Citizenship ethics: The relationship between collective identity-seeking and altruistic values. Bulletin of the Iranian Sociological Association, 5.

A Peace-Oriented Investigation of the Ethnic Identity Challenge in Iran (A Study of Five Iranian Ethnic Groups with the GT Method)

Year 2022, Volume 8, Issue 1, 1 - 40, 25.01.2022
https://doi.org/10.21600/ijoks.1039049

Abstract

In the contemporary era, Iran has undergone a continuous experience of identity/ethnic multiplicity, which has caused serious interethnic conflicts revolving around discrimination and inequality in the urge for identity and justice and with a peace-oriented trace as the process of globalization has developed.

In this research, the influence on Iranian civilization in terms of land, language, and religion have been investigated in five ethnic groups, including Persian, Azeri, Kurd, Arab, and Baloch, given different aspects of Islamic and Western governments. The consideration of the Persian ethnic identity as the exclusive component of Iranian national identity has reduced ancient Iranian identity and brought about claims for identity in other ethnic groups.

The present article is an extract from author’s recently published book2 which has adopted a hybrid qualitative approach (GT), in-depth interview surveys and tools, library documentation, and an open questionnaire in thirteen provinces to extract and classify data in the following areas: religious identity and national identity (interaction or opposition), interethnic cultural borders, ethnic and national movement dead-end, elimination of cultures, and a peace-oriented approach to resolving the crisis. Thus, a conceptual model has been obtained, shaping basic factors (economic and ideological), intervening factors (media and lifestyle), grounded factors (legal and cultural parameters and resource mismanagement), and phenomenal orientation (claim for justice and socio-political gap) and presenting strategic action (peaceful action, acceptance of the present conditions, and state-nation interaction) and its outcomes (stability and decline of social capital).

References

  • Abdollahi, Mohammad and Hosseinbor, Mohammad Osman. (2002). Baloch students’ tendency toward national identity in Iran. Iranian Journal of Sociology, 4 (4), p. 101-126.
  • Ahmadi, Hamid. (2018). Ethnicity and Ethnocentrism in Iran: From a Myth to Reality. Tehran: Ney.
  • Ahmady, Kameel. From border to Border (A comprehensive reach on Identity and Ethnicity in Iran), 2021, Mehri Publishing, London, UK
  • Alamdari, Kazem. (2004). Why has Iran Fallen Behind and the West Progressed? Tenth Printing, Tehran: Towse’e.
  • Amirahmadi, Hooshang. (1998). Ethnicity and Security (Translated by Hasan Shafi'i). Strategic Studies Quarterly, 1 (2), p. 207-234.
  • Ashraf, Ahmad. (1999). Iranian Identity among Iranians Abroad (Volume II of Tradition and Modernity). Cultural Bulletin of the Deputy of Financial Affairs of the Ministry of Culture and Islamic Guidance, Tehran.
  • Ashcreft, B.; Griffths, G. & Tiffin H. (1998). Key Concepts in post-colonial studies. London: Routledge.
  • Atabaki, Touraj. (2002). Azerbaijan and Iranian nationalism. Goftogu: Quarterly on Culture and Society, 33, p. 17-36.
  • Baratalipour, Mahdi. (2015). Perpetual peace and global political justice. World Politics: A Quarterly Journal,
  • Barrington, Lowell W. (2006). After Independence Making and Protecting the Nations in Postcolonial and Postcommunist States. The University of Michigan Press.
  • Barth, F. (1969). Introduction Ethnic Groups and Boundaries. (In F. Barth ed.). Bergen: Universitetsforlage.
  • Bigdeli, Ali. (2006). Militarist thoughts in the Pahlavi I Era (Part one). Available at www.farsnews.com/news/8512070023 (Last retrieved 25 February 2019).
  • Bigdelo, Reza. (2001). Archaism in Contemporary History. Tehran: Markaz.
  • Borujerdi, Mehrdad. (2000). Iranian culture and identity beyond the borders. Journal of National Studies, 2 (5), p. 317-330.
  • Brown, Graham K. & Arnim, Langer. (2010), Conceptualizing and Measuring Ethnicity. Oxford Development Studies, 38 (4).
  • Brown, R. (1996). Social Identity )In A. Kuper and J. Kuper(. The Social Science Encyclopedia, New York: Rouledge.
  • Buurih, j. (1997) Culture Identity and immigration. Ethnic and Racial Studies, 21, p. 574-601.
  • Cashmore, Ellis. (1996). Dictionary of Race and Ethnic Relations. Fourth edition, London: Routledge Fenton, S. (2004). Beyond Ethnicity: The Coughlan, Reed (1985), Ethnicity and the State: Five Perspective. Choice.
  • Castells, Manuel. (2010). The Information Age: Economy, Society and Culture (Translated by Ahad Aligholiyan and Afshin Khakbaz). Tehran: Tarhe No.
  • Diakonoff, Mikhail. (2004). History of Ancient Iran (Translated by Ruhi Arbab). Tehran: Scientific and Cultural.
  • Entman, R. & Rojecki, A. (2000). The Black Image in the White Mind: Media and Race in America. Chicago: Chicago University Press.
  • Eriksen, Thomas H. (1993). Ethincity and nationalisim. London: Pluto press.
  • Faulks. K. (2000). Citizenship. New York: Routedg
  • Fuller, Graham. (1993). The Center of the Universe (Translated by Abbas Mokhber). Tehran: Markaz.
  • Ghasemi, Aliasghar; Khorshidi, Majid and Heidari, Hossein. (2011). Harmony between national and ethnic identity in Iran and Iranian ethnic groups’ approach toward national unity and the right to their destiny. Quarterly of Social Sciences, 18 (55), p. 57-92.
  • Giddens, Anthony. (2006). Sociology (Translated by Manuchehr Saburi). Tehran: Ney.
  • - (2019). Modernity and Self-identity (Translated by Naser Movaffaghiyan). Tehran: Ney.
  • Global Comparative Analysis of Ethnic Conflict. International Journal of Comparative Sociology, 45 (3-4), p. 179-194.
  • Graves, S. (1999). Television and Prejudice Reduction: When Does Television as a Vicarious Experience Make a Difference?. In Journal of Social Issues, 55 (4), p. 707-725.
  • Hall, S. & Gieben, B. (1990). Formation of Modernity. Cambridge: polity press
  • Hassanpour A. (1992), Nationalism and Language in Kurdistan, Mellen Research University Press.
  • Hechter, M. (1975). Internal Colonialism: The Celtic Fringe in British Nional Development, 1536-1966. London and Henley: Routledge & Kegan Paul.
  • Haghpanah, Jafar. (2003). Formulation procedure of ethnic policies in the Islamic Republic of Iran. Strategic Studies Quarterly, 6 (91), p. 462-542.
  • Jenkins, R. (2014). Rethinking Ethnicity. London: Sage.
  • Kaufmann, Eric. (2015). Land, History or Modernization? Explaining Ethnic Fractionalization. Ethnic and Racial Studies, 38, (2), pp. 193-210.
  • Lson, Eric T. (2002). Personal Identity. In The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy (Edward N. Zalta ed.)
  • Kachooyan, Hossein. (2008). Evolutions of Identity Discourses in Iran. Tehran: Ney.
  • Karacan, H. (2020). Kurmanji and Zazaki Dialects: Comparative Study on their Phonetics. International Journal of Kurdish Studies 6 (1), 35 – 51, DOI: https://doi.org/10.21600/ijoks.653812
  • Karacan, H. & Kaya, B. (2015). Zazaki ile Kurmanci lehçelerinin fonetik yönünden karşılaştırılması. International Journal of Kurdish Studies 1 (2), pp.102 – 115. DOI: https://doi.org/10.21600/ijoks.106020
  • Kasravi, Ahmad. (1978), Eighteen-Year History of Azerbaijan. Tehran: Amirkabir.
  • Khamei, Anvar. (2002). Pan-Turkism and its scientific and historical value. Socioeconomic Information, 17 (81 and 82), p. 40.
  • Kurung, Shen. (2002). Democratization of international relations. Gozareshe Goftogu. 1 (2), p. 36-44.
  • Malesevic, S. (2004). Sociology of Ethnicity. London: Sage Publication Ltd.
  • Malesevic, Sinisa. (2011). The Sociology of Ethnicity (Translated by Parviz Dalirpur). Tehran: Ameh.
  • Milton, M. Gordon. (1964). Assimilation in American Life. New York: Oxford University Press. Brown, Graham K. & Arnim, Langer. (2010), Conceptualizing and Measuring Ethnicity. Oxford Development Studies, 38 (4).
  • Mirmohamadi, Masumeh Sadat. (2011). A comparison of perpetual peace in Kant’s human- oriented thought and just peace in Shia thinkers’ thought. Ma'rifat-e Adyan, 2 (4), p. 117-146.
  • Motyl, Alexander. (2004). Middle East: Encyclopedia of Nationalism (Translated by Kamran Fani and Mahbube Mohajer). Tehran: Library of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs.
  • Mozafari, Arezu. (2012). Ethnicity and social security: A case study of the Baloch residing in Sistan and Baluchistan Province. National Congress on Border Cities and Security; Challenges and Strategies.
  • Muir, Richard. (1997). Political Geography – A New Introduction. Hong Kong: Mac Millan Press Ltd.
  • Nagel, Joanne & Olzak, S. (1982). Ethnic Mobilization in New and Old States: An Extension of Competition Model, Social Problems, 30 (2), pp. 127-143.
  • Oldfield. A. (1990). Citizenship and Community: Civic Rebublicanism and The Modern World. London: Routledge.
  • Olson, Eric T. (2002). Personal Identity, In the Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy (Edward N. Zalta ed.).
  • Olzak, Susan. (1985). Ethnicity and Theories of Ethnic Collective Bahavioue. Research in Social Movements. Conflicts and Change, 8, pp. 65 85.
  • Popper, K. (1962). The Open Society and its Enemies. London. Schwarzmantel, John. (2003). Citizenship and Identity: Towards a new republic. Routledge.
  • Rashidi, Hasan. (2008). Investigation of the Relationship between Social Factors and Collective Identity (Ethnic, National, and Global) among Students at Islamic Azad University of Mahabad (Master’s Thesis). Islamic Azad University of Tabriz.
  • Ramezanzadeh, Abdollah. (1998). Ethnic crisis trend in Iran. Strategic Studies Quarterly, 1, p. 217-28.
  • - (1997). Development and ethnic challenges, development and public security. Tehran: Conference on Public Development and Security.
  • Qayyim, Abd al-Nabi. (2001). A sociological study of the life and culture of the Arab in Khuzestan. Journal of National Studies, 2 (7), p. 15-26.
  • Sanie Ejlal, Maryam. (2005). An Introduction to Iranian Culture and Identity. Tehran: Institute for National Studies.
  • Shayegan, Dariush. (2002). Mental Idols and Primordial Memory. Tehran: Amirkabir.
  • - (2005). Modern Fascination: Multifold Identity and Mobile Thought (Translated by Fateme Valiyani). Fourth Printing, Tehran: Farzan Ruz.
  • Solomos, John. (1986). Varieties of Marxist Conceptions of Race, Class and the State: A Critical Analysis. In Theories of race and ethnic relations, edited by John Rex and David Mason. Cambridge: At the University Press.
  • Tavassoli, Gholam-Abbas. (2019). Sociological Theories. Tehran: Samt.
  • Turner, Jonathan, H. (1998). The Structure of sociological theory. Sixth edition, Belmont: Hadsworth publication.
  • Vali, Abbas et al., (2018). Speech at the Birthplace of Kurd Nationalism. Tehran: Cheshmeh.
  • Weber, M. (1968). Economy and Society. Berkeley: University of California Press.
  • Yusofi, Ali. (2001). Interethnic relations and their effects on the identities of the ethnic groups in Iran. Journal of National Studies, 2(8), p. 11-42.
  • Zokaei, Mohammad Saeid. (2002). Citizenship ethics: The relationship between collective identity-seeking and altruistic values. Bulletin of the Iranian Sociological Association, 5.

Details

Primary Language English
Subjects Social
Journal Section Makaleler
Authors

Kameel AHMADY> (Primary Author)
It is not affiliated with an institution
0000-0001-5467-966X
United Kingdom

Supporting Institution University of Kent
Publication Date January 25, 2022
Application Date December 20, 2021
Acceptance Date December 21, 2021
Published in Issue Year 2022, Volume 8, Issue 1

Cite

Bibtex @research article { ijoks1039049, journal = {International Journal of Kurdish Studies}, issn = {2149-2751}, eissn = {2149-2751}, address = {}, publisher = {Hasan KARACAN}, year = {2022}, volume = {8}, number = {1}, pages = {1 - 40}, doi = {10.21600/ijoks.1039049}, title = {A Peace-Oriented Investigation of the Ethnic Identity Challenge in Iran (A Study of Five Iranian Ethnic Groups with the GT Method)}, key = {cite}, author = {Ahmady, Kameel} }
APA Ahmady, K. (2022). A Peace-Oriented Investigation of the Ethnic Identity Challenge in Iran (A Study of Five Iranian Ethnic Groups with the GT Method) . International Journal of Kurdish Studies , 8 (1) , 1-40 . DOI: 10.21600/ijoks.1039049
MLA Ahmady, K. "A Peace-Oriented Investigation of the Ethnic Identity Challenge in Iran (A Study of Five Iranian Ethnic Groups with the GT Method)" . International Journal of Kurdish Studies 8 (2022 ): 1-40 <http://www.ijoks.com/en/pub/issue/68153/1039049>
Chicago Ahmady, K. "A Peace-Oriented Investigation of the Ethnic Identity Challenge in Iran (A Study of Five Iranian Ethnic Groups with the GT Method)". International Journal of Kurdish Studies 8 (2022 ): 1-40
RIS TY - JOUR T1 - A Peace-Oriented Investigation of the Ethnic Identity Challenge in Iran (A Study of Five Iranian Ethnic Groups with the GT Method) AU - Kameel Ahmady Y1 - 2022 PY - 2022 N1 - doi: 10.21600/ijoks.1039049 DO - 10.21600/ijoks.1039049 T2 - International Journal of Kurdish Studies JF - Journal JO - JOR SP - 1 EP - 40 VL - 8 IS - 1 SN - 2149-2751-2149-2751 M3 - doi: 10.21600/ijoks.1039049 UR - https://doi.org/10.21600/ijoks.1039049 Y2 - 2021 ER -
EndNote %0 International Journal of Kurdish Studies A Peace-Oriented Investigation of the Ethnic Identity Challenge in Iran (A Study of Five Iranian Ethnic Groups with the GT Method) %A Kameel Ahmady %T A Peace-Oriented Investigation of the Ethnic Identity Challenge in Iran (A Study of Five Iranian Ethnic Groups with the GT Method) %D 2022 %J International Journal of Kurdish Studies %P 2149-2751-2149-2751 %V 8 %N 1 %R doi: 10.21600/ijoks.1039049 %U 10.21600/ijoks.1039049
ISNAD Ahmady, Kameel . "A Peace-Oriented Investigation of the Ethnic Identity Challenge in Iran (A Study of Five Iranian Ethnic Groups with the GT Method)". International Journal of Kurdish Studies 8 / 1 (January 2022): 1-40 . https://doi.org/10.21600/ijoks.1039049
AMA Ahmady K. A Peace-Oriented Investigation of the Ethnic Identity Challenge in Iran (A Study of Five Iranian Ethnic Groups with the GT Method). Kurdish Studies. 2022; 8(1): 1-40.
Vancouver Ahmady K. A Peace-Oriented Investigation of the Ethnic Identity Challenge in Iran (A Study of Five Iranian Ethnic Groups with the GT Method). International Journal of Kurdish Studies. 2022; 8(1): 1-40.
IEEE K. Ahmady , "A Peace-Oriented Investigation of the Ethnic Identity Challenge in Iran (A Study of Five Iranian Ethnic Groups with the GT Method)", International Journal of Kurdish Studies, vol. 8, no. 1, pp. 1-40, Jan. 2022, doi:10.21600/ijoks.1039049


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