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In the Name of Traditions: A Comprehensive Study on the impact of Female Genital Mutilation (FGM) on women and girls An overview on Female Genital Mutilation/Cutting in Iran

Year 2022, Volume 8, Issue 1, 119 - 145, 25.01.2022
https://doi.org/10.21600/ijoks.1039056

Abstract

A comprehensive study was undertaken to investigate, explore and analyse the existence of female genital mutilation/cutting (FGM or FGM/C) in Iran. The timespan of this study began in 2005 and ended in 2014. The aim of this study was to provide in-depth data on FGM in Iran and, at the same time, provide the building blocks for a comprehensive programme to combat FGM in Iran and bring this issue onto the world’s agenda. The methodological approach adopted by this study was primarily participatory, due to the sensitivity of the subject matter. Most parts of this research were completed by the end of 2014, and much has been achieved over a decade of studying the subject of FGM in Iran.
The study included travelling thousands of kilometers and interviewing over 3,000 women and 1,000 men from various areas and social classes, including key role players, community leaders, clerics and religious leaders in order to compile comprehensive data about the practice of FGM in Iran. The findings demonstrate that FGM in some locations is widespread among women and girls (around 60% in some villages of Qeshm Island in the southern province of Hurmozgan, especially in the villages of the four provinces in the north-west, west and south of Iran). FGM was not, however, practised in the northern parts of West Azerbaijan, where people are Turkish Azeri and Kurmanji Kurdish speakers, nor in the southern parts of Kermanshah and northern parts of Hormozgan.
This research study, along with a short documentary film, has gained global recognition and was launched by The Guardian and the BBC on 4 June 2015 through their websites. Shortly thereafter it was discussed at a United Nations meeting of the Human Rights Council in Geneva, on 19 June 2015 at a session on eliminating FGM. Reuters also published an analysis of the research and considered it one of the rare contributions in the history of Iran. 

References

  • Abiad, Nisrine. 2008. Sharia, Muslim states and international human rights treaty obligations: a comparative study: BIICL.
  • Ahmady, Kameel. In the name of tradition, (female genital mutilation in Iran), Un cut voice publishing, Germany 2015
  • Ahmady, Kameel. 2006. "FGM in Iran.” https://kameelahmady.com/fgm-in-iran/
  • Alawi, Irfan, and Stephen Schwartz. 2015. "Title." APril 18. http://www.weeklystandard.com/blogs/female-genital-mutilation-growing-problem- iran_824155.html?page=1.
  • ARC, AUstralian Red Cross. 2013. "Iran COI Compilation." Accessed April 8. http://www.refworld.org/pdfid/522ec5aa4.pdf.
  • Bamberger, Michael. 2000. Integrating quantitative and qualitative research in development projects: World Bank Publications. Bob, Clifford. 2011. The international struggle for new human rights: University of Pennsylvania Press. Boyle, Elizabeth Heger. 2005. Female genital cutting: Cultural conflict in the global community: JHU Press. Brown, Isaac Baker. 1866. On the curability of certain forms of insanity, epilepsy, catalepsy, and hysteria In females: Robert Hardwicke.
  • de Souza, R.T., and Purdue University. Communication. 2007. NGOs and Empowerment: Creating Communicative Spaces in the Realm of HIV/AIDS in India: Purdue University.
  • EndFGM. 2012. Campaign, End FGM European campaign run by Amnesty International. Retrieved.
  • Favali, L., and R. Pateman. 2003. Blood, Land, and Sex: Legal and Political Pluralism in Eritrea: Indiana University Press.
  • Foldès, Pierre, Béatrice Cuzin, and Armelle Andro. 2012. "Reconstructive surgery after female genital mutilation: a prospective cohort study." The Lancet 380 (9837):134-141.
  • Ghareeb, Edmund A, and Beth Dougherty. 2004. Historical dictionary of Iraq: Scarecrow Press. Guiora, A. 2013. Freedom from Religion: Rights and National Security: Oxford University Press, USA. Harris-Short, S. 2013. Aboriginal Child Welfare, Self-Government and the Rights of Indigenous Children: Protecting the Vulnerable Under International Law: Ashgate Publishing Limited.
  • Isiaka, B Tajudeen, and S Olabisi Yusuff. 2013. "Perception of Women on Female Genital Mutilations and implications for health communications in Lagos State, Nigeria." American Academic & Scholarly Research Journal 5 (1):8. Kelly, S., and J. Breslin. 2010. Women's Rights in the Middle East and North Africa: Progress Amid Resistance: Rowman & Littlefield Publishers.
  • Lightfoot-Klein, Hanny. 1983. "Pharaonic circumcision of females in the Sudan." Medicine and law 2 (4):353.
  • May, Tim. 2011. Social research: Issues, methods and process: McGraw-Hill Education (UK). Momoh, C. 2005. Female Genital Mutilation: Radcliffe Pub. Nyangweso, M. 2014. Female Genital Cutting in Industrialized Countries: Mutilation or Cultural Tradition?: ABC-CLIO.
  • Rahman, Anika, and Nahid Toubia. 2000. Female genital mutilation: A practical guide to worldwide laws & policies: Zed Books.
  • Shrestha, K.K., H.R. Ojha, P. McManus, A. Rubbo, and K.K. Dhote. 2014. Inclusive Urbanization: Rethinking Policy, Practice and Research in the Age of Climate Change: Taylor & Francis.
  • Slack, Alison T. 1988. "Female circumcision: A critical appraisal." Human Rights Quarterly: 437-486. Tankwala, S. 2014. ARAB SPRING WOMEN'S NIGHTMARE: LULU Press. Toubia, Nahid. 1995. "Female genital mutilation: a call for global action."
  • UNICEF. 2013. "Female Genital Mutilation/Cutting: A statistical overview and exploration of the dynamics of change." New York: UNICEF.
  • UNICEF. 2014. "Female Genital Mutilation & Cutting." Last Modified Feb 2015 Accessed April 6. http://data.unicef.org/child-protection/fgmc.

In the Name of Traditions: A Comprehensive Study on the Impact of Female Genital Mutilation (FGM) on Women and Girls An Overview of Female Genital Mutilation (FGM) in Iran

Year 2022, Volume 8, Issue 1, 119 - 145, 25.01.2022
https://doi.org/10.21600/ijoks.1039056

Abstract

A comprehensive study was undertaken to investigate, explore and analyse the existence of female genital mutilation/cutting (FGM or FGM/C) in Iran. The timespan of this study began in 2005 and ended in 2014. The aim of this study was to provide in-depth data on FGM in Iran and, at the same time, provide the building blocks for a comprehensive programme to combat FGM in Iran and bring this issue onto the world’s agenda. The methodological approach adopted by this study was primarily participatory, due to the sensitivity of the subject matter. Most parts of this research were completed by the end of 2014, and much has been achieved over a decade of studying the subject of FGM in Iran.
The study included travelling thousands of kilometers and interviewing over 3,000 women and 1,000 men from various areas and social classes, including key role players, community leaders, clerics and religious leaders in order to compile comprehensive data about the practice of FGM in Iran. The findings demonstrate that FGM in some locations is widespread among women and girls (around 60% in some villages of Qeshm Island in the southern province of Hurmozgan, especially in the villages of the four provinces in the north-west, west and south of Iran). FGM was not, however, practised in the northern parts of West Azerbaijan, where people are Turkish Azeri and Kurmanji Kurdish speakers, nor in the southern parts of Kermanshah and northern parts of Hormozgan.
This research study, along with a short documentary film, has gained global recognition and was launched by The Guardian and the BBC on 4 June 2015 through their websites. Shortly thereafter it was discussed at a United Nations meeting of the Human Rights Council in Geneva, on 19 June 2015 at a session on eliminating FGM. Reuters also published an analysis of the research and considered it one of the rare contributions in the history of Iran. 

References

  • Abiad, Nisrine. 2008. Sharia, Muslim states and international human rights treaty obligations: a comparative study: BIICL.
  • Ahmady, Kameel. In the name of tradition, (female genital mutilation in Iran), Un cut voice publishing, Germany 2015
  • Ahmady, Kameel. 2006. "FGM in Iran.” https://kameelahmady.com/fgm-in-iran/
  • Alawi, Irfan, and Stephen Schwartz. 2015. "Title." APril 18. http://www.weeklystandard.com/blogs/female-genital-mutilation-growing-problem- iran_824155.html?page=1.
  • ARC, AUstralian Red Cross. 2013. "Iran COI Compilation." Accessed April 8. http://www.refworld.org/pdfid/522ec5aa4.pdf.
  • Bamberger, Michael. 2000. Integrating quantitative and qualitative research in development projects: World Bank Publications. Bob, Clifford. 2011. The international struggle for new human rights: University of Pennsylvania Press. Boyle, Elizabeth Heger. 2005. Female genital cutting: Cultural conflict in the global community: JHU Press. Brown, Isaac Baker. 1866. On the curability of certain forms of insanity, epilepsy, catalepsy, and hysteria In females: Robert Hardwicke.
  • de Souza, R.T., and Purdue University. Communication. 2007. NGOs and Empowerment: Creating Communicative Spaces in the Realm of HIV/AIDS in India: Purdue University.
  • EndFGM. 2012. Campaign, End FGM European campaign run by Amnesty International. Retrieved.
  • Favali, L., and R. Pateman. 2003. Blood, Land, and Sex: Legal and Political Pluralism in Eritrea: Indiana University Press.
  • Foldès, Pierre, Béatrice Cuzin, and Armelle Andro. 2012. "Reconstructive surgery after female genital mutilation: a prospective cohort study." The Lancet 380 (9837):134-141.
  • Ghareeb, Edmund A, and Beth Dougherty. 2004. Historical dictionary of Iraq: Scarecrow Press. Guiora, A. 2013. Freedom from Religion: Rights and National Security: Oxford University Press, USA. Harris-Short, S. 2013. Aboriginal Child Welfare, Self-Government and the Rights of Indigenous Children: Protecting the Vulnerable Under International Law: Ashgate Publishing Limited.
  • Isiaka, B Tajudeen, and S Olabisi Yusuff. 2013. "Perception of Women on Female Genital Mutilations and implications for health communications in Lagos State, Nigeria." American Academic & Scholarly Research Journal 5 (1):8. Kelly, S., and J. Breslin. 2010. Women's Rights in the Middle East and North Africa: Progress Amid Resistance: Rowman & Littlefield Publishers.
  • Lightfoot-Klein, Hanny. 1983. "Pharaonic circumcision of females in the Sudan." Medicine and law 2 (4):353.
  • May, Tim. 2011. Social research: Issues, methods and process: McGraw-Hill Education (UK). Momoh, C. 2005. Female Genital Mutilation: Radcliffe Pub. Nyangweso, M. 2014. Female Genital Cutting in Industrialized Countries: Mutilation or Cultural Tradition?: ABC-CLIO.
  • Rahman, Anika, and Nahid Toubia. 2000. Female genital mutilation: A practical guide to worldwide laws & policies: Zed Books.
  • Shrestha, K.K., H.R. Ojha, P. McManus, A. Rubbo, and K.K. Dhote. 2014. Inclusive Urbanization: Rethinking Policy, Practice and Research in the Age of Climate Change: Taylor & Francis.
  • Slack, Alison T. 1988. "Female circumcision: A critical appraisal." Human Rights Quarterly: 437-486. Tankwala, S. 2014. ARAB SPRING WOMEN'S NIGHTMARE: LULU Press. Toubia, Nahid. 1995. "Female genital mutilation: a call for global action."
  • UNICEF. 2013. "Female Genital Mutilation/Cutting: A statistical overview and exploration of the dynamics of change." New York: UNICEF.
  • UNICEF. 2014. "Female Genital Mutilation & Cutting." Last Modified Feb 2015 Accessed April 6. http://data.unicef.org/child-protection/fgmc.

Details

Primary Language English
Subjects Social
Journal Section Makaleler
Authors

Kameel AHMADY> (Primary Author)
It is not affiliated with an institution
0000-0001-5467-966X
United Kingdom

Supporting Institution University of Kent
Publication Date January 25, 2022
Application Date December 20, 2021
Acceptance Date December 21, 2021
Published in Issue Year 2022, Volume 8, Issue 1

Cite

Bibtex @research article { ijoks1039056, journal = {International Journal of Kurdish Studies}, issn = {2149-2751}, eissn = {2149-2751}, address = {}, publisher = {Hasan KARACAN}, year = {2022}, volume = {8}, number = {1}, pages = {119 - 145}, doi = {10.21600/ijoks.1039056}, title = {In the Name of Traditions: A Comprehensive Study on the Impact of Female Genital Mutilation (FGM) on Women and Girls An Overview of Female Genital Mutilation (FGM) in Iran}, key = {cite}, author = {Ahmady, Kameel} }
APA Ahmady, K. (2022). In the Name of Traditions: A Comprehensive Study on the Impact of Female Genital Mutilation (FGM) on Women and Girls An Overview of Female Genital Mutilation (FGM) in Iran . International Journal of Kurdish Studies , 8 (1) , 119-145 . DOI: 10.21600/ijoks.1039056
MLA Ahmady, K. "In the Name of Traditions: A Comprehensive Study on the Impact of Female Genital Mutilation (FGM) on Women and Girls An Overview of Female Genital Mutilation (FGM) in Iran" . International Journal of Kurdish Studies 8 (2022 ): 119-145 <http://www.ijoks.com/en/pub/issue/68153/1039056>
Chicago Ahmady, K. "In the Name of Traditions: A Comprehensive Study on the Impact of Female Genital Mutilation (FGM) on Women and Girls An Overview of Female Genital Mutilation (FGM) in Iran". International Journal of Kurdish Studies 8 (2022 ): 119-145
RIS TY - JOUR T1 - In the Name of Traditions: A Comprehensive Study on the Impact of Female Genital Mutilation (FGM) on Women and Girls An Overview of Female Genital Mutilation (FGM) in Iran AU - Kameel Ahmady Y1 - 2022 PY - 2022 N1 - doi: 10.21600/ijoks.1039056 DO - 10.21600/ijoks.1039056 T2 - International Journal of Kurdish Studies JF - Journal JO - JOR SP - 119 EP - 145 VL - 8 IS - 1 SN - 2149-2751-2149-2751 M3 - doi: 10.21600/ijoks.1039056 UR - https://doi.org/10.21600/ijoks.1039056 Y2 - 2021 ER -
EndNote %0 International Journal of Kurdish Studies In the Name of Traditions: A Comprehensive Study on the Impact of Female Genital Mutilation (FGM) on Women and Girls An Overview of Female Genital Mutilation (FGM) in Iran %A Kameel Ahmady %T In the Name of Traditions: A Comprehensive Study on the Impact of Female Genital Mutilation (FGM) on Women and Girls An Overview of Female Genital Mutilation (FGM) in Iran %D 2022 %J International Journal of Kurdish Studies %P 2149-2751-2149-2751 %V 8 %N 1 %R doi: 10.21600/ijoks.1039056 %U 10.21600/ijoks.1039056
ISNAD Ahmady, Kameel . "In the Name of Traditions: A Comprehensive Study on the Impact of Female Genital Mutilation (FGM) on Women and Girls An Overview of Female Genital Mutilation (FGM) in Iran". International Journal of Kurdish Studies 8 / 1 (January 2022): 119-145 . https://doi.org/10.21600/ijoks.1039056
AMA Ahmady K. In the Name of Traditions: A Comprehensive Study on the Impact of Female Genital Mutilation (FGM) on Women and Girls An Overview of Female Genital Mutilation (FGM) in Iran. Kurdish Studies. 2022; 8(1): 119-145.
Vancouver Ahmady K. In the Name of Traditions: A Comprehensive Study on the Impact of Female Genital Mutilation (FGM) on Women and Girls An Overview of Female Genital Mutilation (FGM) in Iran. International Journal of Kurdish Studies. 2022; 8(1): 119-145.
IEEE K. Ahmady , "In the Name of Traditions: A Comprehensive Study on the Impact of Female Genital Mutilation (FGM) on Women and Girls An Overview of Female Genital Mutilation (FGM) in Iran", International Journal of Kurdish Studies, vol. 8, no. 1, pp. 119-145, Jan. 2022, doi:10.21600/ijoks.1039056


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